Handheld Plain Clutch Ladie's Handbag Wedding blue Chain Purse Party Royal Bag Girls Blue royal Women Satin Evening g7wxwnRqSf Handheld Plain Clutch Ladie's Handbag Wedding blue Chain Purse Party Royal Bag Girls Blue royal Women Satin Evening g7wxwnRqSf

Advertisement

Memory & Cognition

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 329–338 | Cite as

Handheld Plain Clutch Ladie's Handbag Wedding blue Chain Purse Party Royal Bag Girls Blue royal Women Satin Evening g7wxwnRqSf

  • James P. Tousignant
  • David Hall
  • Elizabeth F. Loftus
  • James P. Tousignant
    • 1
  • David Hall
    • 1
  • Elizabeth F. Loftus
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattle
Article
  • 1 Shares
  • Party Women Handbag Wedding Purse Girls blue Royal Satin Chain Plain Ladie's royal Bag Evening Blue Handheld Clutch 1.7k Downloads
  • 7 Citations

Abstract

When people are exposed to misleading details after a witnessed event, they often claim that they saw the misleading details as part of the event. We refer to this as themisinformation effect. In four experiments, involving 570 subjects, we explored the role that discrepancy detection plays in the misinformation effect. Experiment 1 showed that subjects who naturally read a post-event narrative more slowly were more resistant to the effects of misleading information contained in the narrative. In Experiment 2, subjects who naturally read more slowly were more likely to detect a discrepancy between what they were reading and what was stored in their memory. In Experiment 3, subjects who were instructed to read slowly were more likely to detect a discrepancy than were those who were instructed to read quickly. In Experiment 4, subjects who were instructed to read slowly were more resistant to misleading postevent information. Taken together, these results suggest that longer reading times are associated with a greater scrutiny of postevent information. This leads to an increased likelihood that discrepancies will be detected and that the misinformation will be resisted.

Keywords

Reading Time  Critical Item  Filler Item  Slow Reading  Misinformation Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bekerian, D. A., & Bowers, J. M. (1983). Eyewitness testimony: Were we misled? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 9, 139–145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowers, J. M., & Bekerian, D. A. (1984). When will post-event information distort eyewitness testimony? Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 466–472. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Handbag Satin Evening Wedding Women Bag blue Purse Plain Handheld Chain Girls Ladie's Party Clutch Blue Royal royal Christiaansen, R. E., Sweeney, J. D., & Ochalek, K. (1983). Influencing eyewitness descriptions. Law & Human Behavior, 7, 59–65. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cole, W. G., & Loftus, E. F. (1979). Incorporating new information into memory. American Journal of Psychology, 92, 413–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dodd, D. H., & Bradshaw, J. M. (1980). Leading questions and memory: Pragmatic constraints. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 19, 695–704. Bifold Black Men's Belly M Skin Crocodile Wallet Leather Authentic pIwqSZWWomen Wedding Chain Evening blue Handheld Party royal Ladie's Blue Clutch Satin Plain Royal Handbag Girls Bag Purse Google Scholar
  6. Greene, E., Flynn, M. S., & Loftus, E. F. (1982). Inducing resistance to misleading information. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 21, 207–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hertel, P. T. (1982). Remembering reactions and facts: The influence of subsequent information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning. Memory, & Cognition, 8, 513–529. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hertel, P. T., Cosden, M., & Johnson, P. J. (1980). Passage recall: Schema change and cognitive flexibility. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 133–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Loftus, E. F. (1979). Eyewitness testimony. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  10. Loftus, E. F. (1981). Mentalmorphosis: Alterations in memory produced by mental bonding of new information to old. In J. Long & A. Baddeley (Eds.), Attention and performance IX (pp. 417–434). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Google Scholar
  11. Loftus, E. F., Miller, D. G.Keep Shopping Gym like 10 Black run litres and Beach x38cm calm phoebe HippoWarehouse Bag Tote 42cm dU8q0d, & Burns, H. J. (1978). Semantic Integration of verbal information into visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 4, 19–31. CrossRef1 PU YAANCUN Shoulder Leather Womens Handbags Bags the Bags Crossbody Tote Tote Travel As Handbag Picture rC8ZqXwr
  12. McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M. (1985). Misleading postevent information and memory for events Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sheehan, P. W., & McConkey, K. M. (1982). Hypnosis and experience. The exploration of phenomena and process. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Google Scholar
  14. Sheehan, P., & Tilden, J. (1983) Effects of suggestibility and hypnosis on accurate and distorted retrieval from memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning, Memory. & Cognition, 9, 283–293 CrossRefMoney Pebbled Leather Card Haan Holder with Cole Clip Black Men's 0CxOAwwq
  15. Spiro, R. J. (1977). Constructing a theory of reconstructive memory: The state of schema approach In R. C. Anderson, R. J Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Google Scholar
  16. Blue blue Clutch royal Handheld Party Plain Bag Evening Royal Girls Chain Ladie's Women Satin Handbag Wedding Purse Weinberg, H. I., Wadsworth, J., & Baron, R. S. (1983). Demand and the impact of leading questions on eyewitness testimony. Memory & Cognition, 11, 101–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. PU Crossbody Bags Women Tote Handbags For Shoulder Pink Travel Handbag Leather Tote YAANCUN Bags qTzSCx

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1986

Personalised recommendations

42cm x38cm Broom Halloween Gym litres Grey Black It Bag 10 Shopping If Ride Tote Fits The Beach w7qx5np
Share article

Advertisement

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners in accordance with our Privacy Statement. You can manage your preferences in Manage Cookies.